Smokers face significantly higher levels of risk compared to non-smokers
Numerous studies have been conducted on how and why smokers face higher levels of risk during surgery.
Smoking increases risk during surgery because it disturbs the healthy functioning of both the heart and lungs.
The carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke combines with red blood cells and reduces their ability to transport oxygen, which in turn reduces the oxygen supply to the lungs and all other cells. Carbon monoxide makes the heart pump poorly, further reducing the amount of oxygen delivered to the rest of the body. Even worse, nicotine from cigarettes increases the amount of oxygen needed by the body. All these effects work together to compromise your body’s oxygen supply.
Smoking affects the lungs in multiple ways. It increases the amount of mucus secreted, while decreasing the lungs’ ability to clear these secretions. Smoke also causes narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, making them prone to collapse. As a result, the lungs become more susceptible to infection, including chronic cough and other breathing complications. Because smokers’ lungs are more sensitive and reactive, there is also a higher likelihood of bronchospasm and other life threatening complications during anaesthesia.
Multiple studies confirm that smoking increases the likelihood of lung complications after an anaesthetic by as much as six times. Smoking also delays wound healing and may lead to heart problems such as heart attacks.
In preparation for surgery, smokers can choose their level of risk. The length of time before surgery you abstain from smoking can make a huge difference to the outcome.
When you smoke, your body sustains short-term impacts and long-term or even permanent damage. All this damage can have a negative impact on your surgery. The increased levels of nicotine and carbon monoxide in your blood are flushed out naturally within a few hours of refraining from smoking.
These are the short-term effects. Most surgeons will tell you to give up smoking two to three weeks before the day of the procedure. This is because a smoker’s lungs can take weeks to recover from the damaging effects of cigarette smoke. By giving up smoking six weeks prior to surgery, you can greatly reduce breathing problems that can occur while under anaesthesia.
Your surgeon will also tell you not to smoke for at least two weeks after surgery, three weeks is even better. Not smoking helps ensure reduced levels of cell death, which may occur if a patient continues to smoke during the recovery period.
In most cases, studies show that non-smokers heal and recover much faster and with far less complications than smokers.
In certain cosmetic procedures smokers stand a higher risk, or lower success rate than non-smokers. Surgeons sometimes refuse to perform procedures—such as relocating blood vessels—that could put smokers at risk. Facelifts, breast reduction, use of tissue flaps (in breast reconstruction, for example) and tummy tucks all fall into this category.
This does not mean you can safely go on smoking if you are having surgical procedures not mentioned above. In general, being a non-smoker or giving up smoking is a key eligibility criterion for candidacy in all surgical procedures.
Some surgeons will refuse to perform a procedure on smokers because smoking increases the risks you face during surgery and an complicate the healing process. Because cosmetic procedures are all about improving your looks, and smoking can compromise the success of the surgery, your surgeon would prefer to see you give up smoking.
Your surgeon can refer you to a smoking cessation program. Medicare provides rebates for consultation with registered medical practitioners and for psychological treatment related to smoking cessation. Certain prescription medications that help you quit smoking are subsidised under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Over-the-counter nicotine patches and other over-the-counter medications like nicotine lozenges, gum, inhalers and micro tabs are not covered under this scheme.